Sol: The physical world is full of complexities of several phenomenon which is not easily understood by layman hence world is incomprehensible for him. When these phenomenon are studied and observed by experts they deduce that these events are govern by some principles and laws. Most events are caused due to subatomic particles and their interactions .Now with the laws it is easy for a common man to understand the logic and reason behind any phenomenon and hence it becomes comprehensible. This is what Einstein meant with his statement above.
Sol: Heresy is basically a belief or an opinion which is against the established theory while dogma is well established theory. It’s true that every great theory starts with heresy and ends with dogma.
Example: Galileo postulated heliocentric theory according to which sun is stationary and other planets revolve around it. This theory was heresy at that time later it was supported by Newton and Kepler and it became a dogma.
Similarly Newton’s Corpuscular theory started as heresy and ended as dogma by Max Planck’s Quantum theory.
Sol: Politics is an art of possible. It means for politicians everything is possible to reach their goal. Politicians give assurance to make anything and everything to win elections about which they r least sure.
Similarly, Science is the field of exploration where every unanswered question has a solution. Science is an art where every complex problem can be explained with few fundamental laws. Thus Science is an art of soluble.
Sol: Factors which have hindered the advancement of science and technology:
- Poverty, due to which India lacks resources and infrastructure.
- Poor management of science education
- Lack of scientific planning
- Brain drain
- No coordination between researchers and industrialists.
- Corruption, due to which the amount of money sanctioned for the development of science is not utilised properly.
- Lack of encouragement and awareness in mainstream courses and research.
Sol: It is true that no one has seen electron yet all physicist believe in existing electrons. It’s because several phenomenon in our daily life gives an evidence of electron such as frictional electricity. When we comb our hair paper strips get attracted since the comb gets charged. It’s an example of electrostatics.
On the other hand, no one has ever seen ghosts but there is no phenomena which explains the basis of existence of ghosts. Thus there is no comparison between any two cases.
Sol: Option b is an explanation of the observed fact.
Sol: The industrial revolution in England and Western Europe more than two centuries ago was triggered by some key scientific and technological advances. Few points are given below:
- Invention of steam engine
- Invention of power loom
- Invention of cotton gin
- Invention of safety lamp
- Discovery of electricity
Sol: Some of the key features which will transform radically the present society are given below:
- Development of superconducting materials at room temperature will bring a revolution in the field of supercomputers, electromagnets, transmission of electric power.
- Development of Biotechnology.
- Development of Quantum Mechanics and its applications.
Sol: Sunita , Kalpana ,Rakesh and I got selected in NASA . We worked there initially as scientists but the idea for a quest to Jupiter hovered in our mind. It triggered us and we opted for astronaut positions and passed all tests. Sunita couldn’t pass the final test and was replaced by Neil. The journey began on 19 December 2017. PSLV-V launched. Everything was set. Spaceships need to solid for safety and light so that they have better chance of escaping earth’s gravitational fuel with less fuel or propellant which is heave and expensive. So we used aluminium composite and Titanium alloys for strengthening the body of spaceships. The spaceship had special thermal protective coat for surviving the heat during re-entry. Our spacecraft had three nuclear power plants. Two of them work alternatively and the third for emergency.
We escaped earth and reached our space station at certain given coordinates. It took nearly a day and we were in space, floating. The major mission to Jupiter was about to start after 10 hrs. We had to set some parameters to cross the asteroid belt which was challenging .Travelling to Jupiter had never been possible but we wanted to give it a shot. Our journey began. After 150 days we crossed Mars. Our fuel tank was decreasing and yet we had to cover 3.68 AU. We had extra fuel in stock though but we weren’t sure if it would be possible to reach Jupiter. We were about to enter asteroid belt. This zone was full of heavy asteroids. Somehow we managed to cross the belt. We were happy though there was certain pinch of uncertainty. After 350 days we saw a ring. We realised its Jupiter.
We landed on Europa (Jupiter’s moon). What we saw was amazing but life risking. The surface had spikes which was too risky for survival. We had our research done and after 24 days we flew back again. It took nearly 600 days to reach earth while during our journey we had life and death situations. The nuclear fuel had exhausted and there was only one emergency propeller. The propeller was jammed and we almost lost our fuel. Neil and Rakesh were working on it while I & Kalpana were navigating our floating ship. The real challenge was to enter earth’s gravitational field. We all knew if this blows we all die. Since there would be too much pressure on one propeller so we had to choose our last option to halt in space station till we get another propeller. NASA coordinated and sent another team to receive us and finally we landed on earth on 19 June 2020.
The marvelous journey came to an end. Life in space seems exciting but difficult to sustain.
Sol: Science is the discovery of truth. Each discovery either it is good or bad for our society should be made public. The reason is that every discovery appears to be boon or bane depends on its usage. Sometimes a discovery which is dangerous today may appear to be useful tomorrow.
For example: Discovery of Nuclear fission led to generate electricity power which is backbone in many countries but can also be used to develop atom bomb.
Sol: (a) Mass vaccination is good as it is used to make the society free from diseases like Small Pox and currently Corona Virus.
(b) Television for eradication of illiteracy and for mass communication of news and ideas is good as it is a medium which easily under the reach of common man and also they are habitual to it.
(c) Prenatal sex determination is bad because people are misusing it .Some people determine the sex of a baby and then think for abortion. Girl child is most affected.
(d) Computers for increase in work efficiency is good as using the computer a man can much work with greater efficiency and accuracy as with computers.
(e) Putting artificial satellites into orbits around the earth is good development as these satellites serve many purposes like Remote Sensing, Weather forecasting etc. These information have high importance for us as we can plan the things in advance.
(f) Development of nuclear weapons is bad as they can lead to mass destruction.
(g) Development of new and powerful techniques of chemical and biological warfare are bad , they can also be used for mass destruction.
(h) Purification of water drinking is good as we can save ourselves from diseases which can have due to drinking the contaminated water.
(i) Plastic surgery is good as with the help of it a man or woman can remove the skin defects occurring due to accidents or some other reasons. It has some bad effects too but they are not very considerable.
(j) Cloning is good as far as possible with help of it we can develop some special species which can be used to serve some specific purposes. But it’s not good for humans.
Sol: The best way to eradicate superstitions, illogical practices from our society is to educate our society. In India major population remains uneducated and this causes them to believe in superstitions without looking for a scientific eye. Proper education in the field of science, commerce and arts should be given. Mass media, newspapers, magazines can play a vital role on it . Awareness programmes should be made to educate them and believe any event only for a reason.
Sol: There is no difference in the capacity of woman in taking good and quick decisions, in doing hard work and intelligence. The development of human brain depends on the nutrition contents of prenatal and postnatal diet and doesn’t depend on gender.
Anything which can be achieved by men can be achieved by women equally. In every field, women have proven themselves. In field of Physics, Madam Curie, a physicist, won Nobel Prize. Kalpana Chawala , Sunita Williams are women astronauts from India. Not only in physics rather in all fields women have met eyes to men. Examples: Kiran Bedi (women IPS Officer), Lata Mangeshkar ( a renowned singer), Mother Teresa, etc.
Thus women should be given equal opportunity on par with men.
Sol: The above statement of the great Physicist PAM Dirac is true. The equation of physics must be simple and short and must explain the concept clearly.
For example, Einstein’s mass energy equivalence equation E= mc^2 is a beautiful equation. Similarly F= ma is also a simple and beautiful equation.
But it’s not true for equations of advanced physics since they are complicated and challenging to solve.
Sol: It is absolutely true that great laws of physics are simple and beautiful. Few examples are given below:
- According to Max Planck’s quantum theory, the energy of photons are quantised. This is expressed by a beautiful formula: E=hv where h is the Planck’s constant and v is frequency.
- Einstein’s mass energy equivalence relation , E=mc^2
- De-Broglie wavelength associated with a particle of mass m is given by Λ= h/mv
All these expressions are easy beautiful and simple.
Sol: Its true that scientists like any other group of humans have their share of humourists. Two great physicists of this genre are Gamow and Feynman. Few other scientists whose name can be added to the list are CV Raman, Einstein, Former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam , Satyandranath Bose etc.