I.   Factors Affecting Teaching


  1. Teacher
  • Appropriate training: Whether the teacher is having an adequate qualification in regard to the institution or students he is teaching to, like Bachelor’s degree, master degree or a degree from any apex body of teacher training .
  • Concise and clear: It is important for the teacher to clearly convey the meaning or concept to students because if he fails to do so he himself is hindering the teaching process. He should keep it concise otherwise lengthiness will make students lose interest.
  • Skills:
  • Interpersonal skills- how friendly he is with students, whether he believes in team work or not
  • Communication skills-he have to be good with his communication skill so that students can easily reciprocate with him.
  • Logical and cognitive skills- how aptly he using different sets of teaching method to make teaching learning process more fruitful
  • Innovative Teacher: mostly teachers prefer lecture method but teacher have be innovative because not all students are meant to be taught in a similar manner, teaching should be according to the mental level of learners.
  • Managing Students Behaviour: management of students’ behaviour is somewhat part of teacher’s personality .Teachers should use different method to make students concentrate.
  • Personality: Whether the teacher ids jovial or arrogant will heavily effect teaching, because if the teacher is authoritative the students will not be able to connect with him but if he keeps the atmosphere democratic students will come up with more question, queries and new ideas.
  • Background: if his social or educational background is not sound he will lack in his teaching skills.
  • Values: whatever values he has inherited or inculcated in his own life and consequently going to impart will affect teaching process.
  • Experience of teacher:
  • Past experience- if he is having a bad rapport with his society or people around this will ultimately affect teaching or vice versa.
  • His professional experience and achievements will also affect his performance.
  • Personal Nature: his overall nature will affect teaching.

2.   Learner


  • Intellectual Ability :students with higher mental level will learn faster than those having lower mental levels.
  • Attention Span: for how much time learners are able to concentrate will affect the teaching because if majority of students are with lower attention span then it will become tough for the teacher to make teaching-learning process more impactful.
  • Prior knowledge: if the learner is having prior knowledge of the advance concept the teacher is going to deal then he will grasp the concept faster
  • Physical Factor: as we know that a healthy mind live in a healthy body so it is necessary that the learner should be physically sound to gain proper knowledge in classroom
  • Emotional and Social Factor: if the learner is coming from poor home environment then he is likely to be emotionally vulnerable which will affect teaching.
  • Readiness: level of readiness differs from person to person some learners are always ready to learn and some need external force to make them learn.

3.   Learning Environment

  • Use of technology in classroom: use of technology can make teaching more impactful as when the teacher uses latest laboratory equipments or smart board while teaching students grow more inquisitive.
  • A quality library: if students get a library maintained with latest editions of books and advanced subscriptions of e-books the students get more to learn about the concerned topics and they grasp more knowledge by intensive reading.
  • Up-to-date textbooks and other instructional materials: if the instructional materials are not up-to-date then students will lack in information ,the reference material used should be of high credibility so that learners can get quality knowledge.
  • Safe, caring, welcoming and inclusive environment: if the institution and teacher collectively provide a homely environment to learners they will feel safe and for sure this will speed up their learning. Learners should get an inclusive environment irrespective of their background. If they feel discriminated this will affect teaching.
  • Equipments and school supplies: if there is deficit of teaching aids of laboratory supplies this will hamper teaching.

4.   Institution

  • Reputation: tensions related to affiliation or accreditations will affect teaching because this thought will keep the teacher or learner disturbing that the institution in which I am teaching or learning is reputed /affiliated or not.
  • Facilities: (a)classroom/faculties (b)transport (c)hostel/wifi
These above mention factors will affect teaching in several ways.
  • Geographical location: if the institution is in a remote or far area it will affect teaching .
  • Poor funding: lack of fund for educational tour or research projects will affect teaching
  • Lack of frequent curricular review:
  • Overpopulation: if no. of students is more than the infrastructure available or the standard teacher-student ration then it will disturb teaching
  • staff strike: strikes can keep the teaching process on hold.
  • poor relation between institution and lawmakers:

If lawmakers are not working properly to start a new project or department then it will be problematic.

  • inadequate teaching and research facility:
  • Administrative policies: if the administrative policies are not in accordance with teaching-learning process as per the govt. norms then it will affect teaching.
  • Support Material: The availability and use of the study /support materials, audios and videos, online courses, online tests and other teaching aids also increase the effectiveness of the teaching and learning. These materials aim to support teachers and students in achieving the learning outcomes. The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed conditions for an effective teaching and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided.
  • Instructional Facilities: These includes the classrooms, laboratories seminar rooms, on-campus clinics, cybraries, and other spaces used principally for the purpose of delivering formal instruction to students. Their availability ensures effective teaching and if these are not available in adequate amount as per the number of students, then students will not be able to learn properly.

II.   Methods of teaching

Once the instructional objectives are fixed, the next step is to choose an appropriate instructional method to achieve them. The teacher has a number of methods at his disposal to select from. These methods are as follows.

  1. Teacher centred methods
    1. Learner centred methods

These can be supposed to be two extreme approaches.

In between we can have a third method approach, that is called as mixed approach.

Teacher-centred teaching methods

  • Lecture method: Lecture method is the most traditional and dominating teaching method and is preferred by many teachers. In this method, a teacher attempts to explain facts, principles or relationships to help learners understand. Here, the teacher is an active participant, the students are passive listeners. Usually, the students do not converse with the teacher during lecture by the teacher. That way, it is one way communication. The teacher talks more or less continuously to the class. The class listens, writes and notes facts and the ideas for remembering and to think them over later. It can be made a two way communication, if the teacher allows students to ask few questions to clarify a point but no discussion is usually held.

Important Methods of Instruction

Large group methodsSmall group methodsIndividualized methods
2.Team teaching
4.TV or video presentation
1.Group discussion
3.Panel discussion
5.Project method or work
7.Case study
8.Role play
9 Stimulation 10Demonstration
3.Project work
4.Case study
5.Programmed instruction
6.Computer-assisted learning
7.Interactive video
8.Open learning
9 Personalized system of     instruction (PSI)
10. Heuristic method
Important Methods of Instruction

Basic Features

  1. It is formal and narrative in nature.
  2. It presents a series of events or facts.
  3. It explores problem.


  1. It is economical and a single teacher can teach a large number of students at a time which is not possible by using other methods. It saves much time and the syllabus can be very easily covered within a limited time.
  2. It simplifies the task of the teacher.
  3. It is useful for imparting factual information and drawing attention to its important points.
  4. During lecture, interruptions and distractions are usually avoided.


  1. It provides very little opportunity for student activity, the teacher takes special care to make the class interesting.
  2. It usually does not provide opportunities to learners to solve problems.
  3. It offers limited opportunities for checking learning progress, whether the students are attending and understanding all that the teacher is explaining.
  4. The interests, abilities and intelligence of students are not taken care of.
  5. It does not allow individual pace of learning.

Suggestions to make lecture method more effective:

  1. The teacher should avoid the tendency to read from the lecture notes word by word.
  2. The teacher should maintain eye to eye contact with the students so as to seek their continuous attention.
  3. Good lesson planning with introductory remarks, main headings, sub- headings, figures and important data and concluding remarks. The students should get the opportunity to make notes.
  4. Use of simple language so that students are able to understand. The main points should be repeated in alternative language.
  5. Make effective use of audio-visual instructional facilities to improve communication of ideas.
  6. Make appropriate use of illustrations and examples. There is a need to ensure the fair presentation of different views and theories.
  7. Provide short breaks during the lecture period for asking thought-provoking, stimulating, and problem-solving questions. Leave time in the end for clarifications and questions.

Team teaching method

Team teaching is an innovative approach in teaching large groups in which two or more teachers are involved in planning, executing and evaluating the learning experiences for a group of students.


  1. Sharing the best faculty by more students.
  2. Optimum use of multiple teaching techniques and devices.
  3. Improvement of teaching quality.


  1. Finding teachers with special competencies is a difficult task.
  2. More teachers are required for this method.
  3. Not useful for teaching all subjects.
  4. Requires much time for planning and scheduling.

Tv or video presentation

Television or video presentation is an improved presentation of radio or audio presentation and it can virtually bring the whole world inside the classroom.

Screening of video presentation is followed by a discussion or task.


  1. Many important personalities and experts are brought to the classroom through video presentation.
  2. Specifically useful for adult learners.
  3. Illustrated lectures and demonstrations can be supplemented by other teaching instructional facilities, such as slides, models, specimens, etc.
  4. Easily accessible for learners in remote areas.
  5. Specifically useful for subjects, such as geography, astronomy, etc.


  1. Less possibility for two-way communication.
  2. There can be difficulty in adjusting to complicated schedules to telecast period.

Mixed group teaching methods

Most of the methods of instructional delivery for the learning of smaller groups numbering between 3 and 12 trainees lean towards trainee- centred approach.

Some of these methods are group discussion, seminar, project work, tutorials, role playing, etc. These are briefly discussed below.

Group discussion (gd)

This may be counted under small as large group teaching methods. It is one of the oldest methods used by Greek scholars and scholars from Nalanda University. A discussion method of teaching is a democratic method used to develop a better understanding among students, for supplementing a lecture, in connection with an observation visit or case presentation, and for sharing information. In this method of considering various facts about the topic under consideration, understanding of these facts by studying their relationships and drawing out conclusions of the facts and their relationships are studied. It stimulates students’ thinking process to analyze and integrate facts and help in developing their abilities in the presentation of their ideas and facts clearly and fluently.

Forms of Discussion

The types of discussion can be classroom discussion, formal group discussion, discussion in terms of symposium, panel, seminar and conference.

  1. Classroom discussion: This is an informal method of discussion with the class. If the class is not too large, sometimes the teacher may select a particular topic with the whole class participating as one group. In this situation, the teacher acts as a leader, they present the topic guides and directs the discussion. At times, a student may take the role of a leader. The leader usually notes down the main points on the blackboard or may ask one of the students to do this. He or she also assists the group in summing up.
  2. Formal group discussion: Formal group discussion is comprised of small group discussion followed by large group discussion. It is desirable when the number of students is more or when it is desirable to discuss several aspects of a topic. To start with the discussion, the teacher may act as the chairman. He or she introduces the topic for discussion and explains the objectives of discussion.He or she helps the students get organized into 3 to 5 small groups. Each group selects a leader and a recorder. Each sub-group (small group) discusses the topic. The leader initiates, coordinates and controls the group discussion. The recorder notes down the discussion points. The teacher acts as a facilitator and a resource person. She is available to assist groups as required. At the end of the allotted time (not more than 30 minutes), all the groups reassemble as large groups. The leader or the recorder of each small group presents the report; and the teacher then leads the general discussion, clarifies points, and finally sums up. Symposium, seminars are also forms of group discussions.

Group discussion can be of the following types as well:

  1. Planned: There is certainty about the conclusions and objectives. The discussion is guided by the trainer in an appropriate sequence.
  2. Partly planned: Here, the concluding and opening statements are known, but the discussions in between is not directed or very loosely guided.
  3. Unplanned: The topic presented for discussion is without any opening statement and the discussion that follows is entirely spontaneous without any guidance from the trainer.


  1. A stimulating thinking process, it helps in the development of critical thinking.
  2. It is pooling of knowledge, ideas and feelings of several persons analysis and integration of facts, ideas and concepts.
  3. Rationalization of facts and it thus promotes intelligent learning.
  4. Learning together, sharing responsibilities and interests.
  5. Developing team spirit in teaching-learning process.
  6. Discovering talented students. Good for developing oral and non- verbal communication


  1. It requires more time, efforts and resources of both teachers and students.
  2. It may involve unnecessary arguments. Discussion may go off the track.
  3. It may create emotional stress and unpleasant feelings.
  4. Possibility of domination of session by a few students.
  5. It is not suitable for all the topics. 

General principles for organizing discussion

  1. The objectives should be clearly defined and understood by all participants.
  2. The members of the group should come prepared, have a basic knowledge about the topic to be discussed.
  3. The leader needs to guide and coordinate the proceedings so that the discussion should be kept to the point.
  4. A recorder may be elected by the group to record the main points of discussion as it is going on. The points can be noted on the black board.
  5. Each one in the group should feel free to participate and a shy person should be encouraged to contribute.
  6. All points of view should be fairly considered.
  7. Discussions should be properly ended with a report, decision, recommendation or summing up of the matters are discussed.


It is a type of group discussion where one trainee or several, prepare a paper on a given topic, issue or problem, which is then presented to the whole group for discussion and analysis. A series of seminars can be presented by the trainees around a major topic, so that they form a linked series of discussions. The main stages in the seminar are preparation of paper, presentation of paper, and discussion on it. Seminars can be bigger ones also.


  1. This method gives more independence, which leads to the development of presentation skills of the participants.
  2. It provides opportunity for the trainees to prepare and contribute to a particular topic thoroughly.
  3. It provides opportunity to the trainees towards practical group leadership and allows them to use analytical skills, research on conclusions, solve a problem, etc.


  1. It is time consuming and may cause stress to participants.
  2. It needs a group of trainees with fairly high-level of attainment.

Panel discussion

A panel consists of a small group of six to eight people. They carry on a guided and informal discussion before an audience. For example, a panel discussion takes place on the issue of climate change. The leader must, in addition, take special care to select the panel members who can think and speak effectively. He must also be sure that they prepare themselves to discuss the subject.


  1. Panel discussions, if well conducted, are usually more interesting to the audience than the single speaker forum.
  2. Usually on socially relevant issues.


  1. Bringing experts to a single forum can be difficult.
  2. The audience is not actively involved.


Brainstorming is a creative group work in which the group members produce a large number of ideas quickly on a given topic or problem for subsequent evaluation. In this method, anyone can exchange remarks with anyone except that the participants are not allowed to criticize the ideas at the time when views are being invited. Sometimes quantity of ideas is more important than quality. Spontaneity is the hallmark of brainstorming sessions. Several rounds of brainstorming are conducted until all the ideas are exhausted. Participants are then asked to evaluate all ideas and list the best ones.


  1. It encourages creativity that helps trainers to produce, think and explore ideas.
  2. Scope for larger participation.
  • It is economical as it does not require much preparation.


  1. It is not a very systematic way of studying a subject.
  2. There is a possibility of some trainees being reluctant to participate.

Project method

This can be described as both a small group and an individualized instruction. In this method, the students are allowed to explore and experience their environment through their senses and direct their own learning by their individual interests. Very little is taught from the textbooks and the emphasis is on experiential learning

rather than rote learning and memorization. A project method classroom focuses on democracy and collaboration to solve purposeful problems.


  1. Students are likely to develop the habit of critical thinking.
  2. They develop the habit of working in teams.


  1. Continuous monitoring may be required.
  2. Additional resources may be required.


Role-playing has been used effectively by many teachers to help solve classroom interpersonal problems and to teach human-relations skills in the classroom.

Role playing has also been used to facilitate subject matter learning through the dramatization of literary and historical works and historical or current events. In all these uses, role playing provides the student with a dramatic confrontation and clarification.


  1. It is the semblance to real-life situations.
  2. Interactive and interesting, it entails participation of every member of the group.
  3. It gives immediate feedback.
  4. It develops social, decision-making, problemsolving, negotiating and manipulating skills.
  5. It is effective to change the attitude of the participants.


  1. It has unpredictable outcomes.
  2. Real-life situations are usually more complex.
  3. It requires a considerable amount of resources.


Simulation means creating conditions that are quite similar to actual conditions and then training is provided under those conditions. For example, the training of pilots and astronauts takes place in conditions that are quite similar to actual flight conditions. Simulation is specifically used for training purpose.


  1. They are economical in the long run.
  2. Safety aspects are taken care of.


  1. It entails high initial investment in machinery equipment, etc.


Tutorial method is a method employed for teaching small groups for developing skills for solving numerical problems, providing individual guidance and sorting personal problems. It is appropriate for taking care of individual differences and guiding the students as per their needs, mastery, learning, comprehending

concepts, principles and their applications and for remedial exercises.


  1. Focused attention
  2. Generates more ideas
  3. Better control over pace of teaching and learning process.


  1. It is difficult to find a suitable pace if the trainees vary greatly in ability.
  2. It can be time consuming.

Demonstration method

This method is based on the principle of learning by doing and learning from concrete to abstract. The term demonstration means to show. It is adopted in the

classroom for the achievement of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives. Demonstration can be defined as a combination of verbal explanation coupled with a live display of using apparatus for presenting important facts, ideas or processes. It may entail audio–visual explanation.


  1. It is effective in explaining materials, objects and ideas.
  2. It is effective in explaining abstract concepts.
  3. It is useful for achieving objectives in cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains as there is mental and physical participation of students.


  1. Only few get opportunities to participate in the experimental process.

Learner Centred teaching methods

The learner centred teaching methods try to accommodate the differences displayed between the learners.

The main teaching methods include assignments, case-study approach, computer-based learning, open learning, personalized system of instruction and programmed instructions, which are discussed below.


Assignments are given to students for a number of purposes, such as for acquiring additional information, surveying, application of knowledge and solving numerical problems. Although the main role is of the learner, the teacher too has a crucial role. The teacher has to plan the assignments and guide the student regarding references for collecting relevant information.

Assignments can be prepared on any type of topic, but the nature of assignment should be such that the students may not merely copy from the books. The

assignments should be open-ended and should promote creativity among the students.


  1. It helps students work independently.
  2. It helps in sharpening the student’s comprehension, analytical and problem-solving abilities.
  3. It helps in the inculcation of creativity among the students.


  1. Students may copy each others material unless the assignments are carefully planned.

Case study

For students who have been exposed only to the traditional teaching methods. The case studies calls for a major change in their approach to learning.

A case is usually a ‘description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem, or an issue faced by a person

or persons in a social set up such as an organization’. In learning with case studies, the students must deal with situations described in the case, i.e., in the role of a decision maker facing the situation. This method has applications across disciplines, such as psychology, management, biology, law, sociology, history, etc., to name a few. By allowing the students to gain hands-on experience of the real world and shifting the work focus from professor to the student, the case-study method becomes an efficient tool for the creation of a learner centred

education rather than a teacher-centred education. The student becomes actively involved in the course and is no longer an observer in class

developments. The cases can be short from brief classroom discussions

to long and elaborate semester-long projects. It is important for bringing real-world problems into a classroom or a workshop. They ensure active participation and may lead to innovative solutions to the problems.


  1. It provides opportunity to the participants to analyse, critically examine, evaluate and express reasoned opinions.
  2. It enhances decision-making and problem-solving skills.
  3. It ensures active participation, which may lead to innovative solutions.


  1. It requires training for the teachers to use this method.
  2. It is not useful for all subjects and situations.

Programmed instruction

Programmed Instruction (PI) is a general term for a highly structured system of learning, which is based on logical sequence of self-paced, learning steps with

feedback between each step. The learner gets immediate feedback after each step.


  1. There is regular feedback.
  2. This ensures active participation of the learner and it can be used for any subject.


  1. Learner motivation may get diminished after sometime.
    1. Personalized system of instruction

Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) can be used for all subject matters except where the students are to select the contents. Learners must achieve mastery of a series of written mastery units, assisted by teachers, proctors and enriching lectures before proceeding to the final test. PSI consists of five basic elements as shown below.

  1. Mastery learning
  2. Self-pacing
  3. Stress on written material
  4. Proctors
  5. Lectures

It is best suited for contents that are usually conveyed through written material.


  1. It is based on mastery learning.
  2. It facilitates self-paced learning.


  1. It is not suitable for rapidly changing course contents.
  2. It is not suitable for psychomotor and affective domains.

Computer-assisted learning

Computer-assisted Learning (CAL) is concerned with the use of a computer to mediate the flow of information in a learning process. A computer has the ability to process information very quickly, accurately and to adapt and respond to the learner’s need, difficulties,and progress, which is much greater than that of a book or video tape.


  1. It has more flexibility and better control in comparison to other methods.
  2. It can be effectively used for drilling and practicing, simulation and modelling.


  1. It is impersonal and costly.

Open learning

It is a flexible method of delivering the instruction, where the learner has open access to learning resources of people, material, equipment and accommodation,

although regular class attendances are not necessary. There are no or minimal restrictions on admissions. The face-to-face interaction between teachers and students through tutorials should form a part of open learning. For open learning, the learning packages are to be developed, making use of multimedia. Open learning instruction is, however, not suitable for the rapidly changing nature of content as this involves time, expertise and resources.


1. It offers flexibility to the learner.


  1. It is not suitable for achieving psychomotor and affective learning objectives.
  2. It requires time, expertise, resources and hence, not suitable for subjects of rapidly changing nature.

Interactive video

The interactive video approach to teaching can be employed to achieve cognitive, psychomotor and affective objectives. It allows the learner to randomly access any piece of information and provide immediate feedback

regarding the consequences of their action. The essence of the interactive video experience is video simulation with more number of

video presentations

of real images as possible.


1. Interactive video approach enhances the decision making power of the individual.


  1. This method is time consuming and requires resources and expertise.

Heuristic method

This method was advocated by Professor Armstrong. In this method, the student has to find out the answer to his/her own problem by unaided efforts. Thus, the

child becomes a discoverer of knowledge by developing a spirit of inquiry. The main aim of teaching by this method is not to provide much facts about Science,

Mathematics, Grammar, etc., but to teach how knowledge of these can be obtained.


1. Self-learning approach


  1. Not mRuch focus on factual knowledge

Differentiated instruction (di)

Differentiated instruction is a dynamic, proactive method of teaching. It means that the teacher plans and uses a variety of ways to teach learning. It is a combination of whole group, small group and individual instruction methods. In this method, the qualitative aspects are given more weightage than quantitative aspects. It uses multiple approaches to accommodate multiple intelligences. It is student-centred, meaning that the lessons are engaging, relevant, interesting and active. It is an organized and planned method of teaching.

Reflective Teaching


Classroom teaching depends on many factors, such as individual differences, class environment, teacher’s and learner’s abilities and the lesson subject matter. There is no standard and perfect teaching method to follow and the teachers should seek a suitable approach to present their lessons. We assume that reflective teachers are knowledgeable about pedagogy, but still there is scope of improvement. Reflective teaching is a means of ‘looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking about why you do it, and thinking about if it works, a process of self-observation and self-evaluation’. The purpose of doing it is to improve the quality of teaching. In general, reflection involves ‘working towards a better understanding of the problems and ways of solving it’. The steps involved in reflective teaching cover ‘suggestions, problems, hypothesis, reasoning and testing’. Reflective teaching is also

seen as the attitude of questioning the practice of teacher’s profession. The peer observation, written account of experiences, self-reports, auto biographies, journal writing, collaborative diary keeping and recording lessons, student’s feedback, teacher’s stories. It may be specifically helpful for pre-service teachers in their professional development, where in a teacher act as adult learner and the facilitator in education system. It also includes training, practice and feedback.

Blended learning: This term originated in USA. There is no clear single definition available for it. Blended learning combines online learning with face-to-face l7earning. It is also defined as the combination of multiple approaches to pedagogy or teaching, for example, self-paced, collaborative or inquiry-based study. The goal of blended learning is to provide the most efficient and effective instruction experience by combining delivery modalities.

III.   Offline vs Online methods

Their differences have been shown below: Differences Between Offline Classroom and Online Classroom

It is teacher focused.It is learner focused.
Teacher is the centralLearner is the central focus
component of teachingof teaching –learning
l-learning process.process.
Learning is more passive; there are fewer roles for learners in the instructional process.Learning is more active and role of learners is more in the instructional process
Teacher concentrates on delivering knowledge and subject contentTeacher helps in construction of knowledge
Instructional strategy is   verbal oriented and is basedLess focus on verbal instruction. Instructional strategies make use
  on traditional methods ofof different styles and
  teachingmethods of teaching
Multimedia may be used,   but delivery of instructionMultimedia are used in a   variety of ways
is mainly verbal 
Student interaction with   technology is lessStudents’ interaction with   technology is more
Focus on face-to-face interaction between teacher and learnersOpportunity of face-to-face interaction between teacher and learners is less
Less chance for motivation   and self leaningIt gives learners chances for   Self learning and motivation
More use of traditional   styles of teachingMake use of innovative   techniques of instruction
Use of technological   instruments is less.Use of technological   instruments is more
Opportunity of interaction   between students and teacher is limitedOpportunity of interaction between teacher and student is more
Duration and period of   study is fixedDuration and period of   study is not fixed
Rigid in characterFlexible in nature

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

MOOCs have become a popular avenue for diverse learners to upgrade their knowledge and skills. Instructors who are new to creating MOOCs tend to

focus on the use of technology features to mimic their classroom actions. While it is necessary to be aware of the technology affordances, it is more important to

focus on the pedagogy of how to use the MOOC features effectively to foster student engagement and learning. Hence MOOC instructors need a set of design principles and guidelines to create a learner-centric MOOC. In this course, we will discuss the Learner-Centric MOOC (LCM) model, and how to apply it to create effective MOOCs.

Intended Audience: Teachers, MOOC creators Core/Elective: Elective


Prerequisites: None

Industry Support: Companies creating online courses, L&D (Training) divisions in companies across various sectors.



SWAYAM is an educational programme started by Government. It was designed to achieve the three cardinal principles of Education – access, equity and quality. The main objective of this programme is to take the best optimal teaching learning resources to all, including the most disadvantaged sections of the society. SWAYAM seeks to bridge the digital divide for students who have hitherto remained untouched by the digital revolution and have not been able to join the mainstream of the knowledge economy. The more details of Swayam have been discussed in the 8th Unit of ICT.



The SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 32 DTH channels devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational programmes on 24 × 7 basis using the GSAT-15 satellite. Every day, there will be new content for at least (4) hours which would be repeated 5 more times in a day, allowing the students to choose the time of their convenience. The channels are uplinked from BISAG, Gandhinagar. The contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERT and NIOS. The INFLIBNET Centre

maintains the web portal.

The DTH Channels shall cover the following:

  1. Higher Education: Curriculum-based course contents at post-graduate and under-graduate level covering diverse disciplines such as arts, science,

commerce, performing arts, social sciences and humanities, engineering, technology, law, medicine, agriculture, etc. All courses would be certification ready in their detailed offering through SWAYAM, the platform being developed for offering MOOCs courses.

  • School education (9-12 levels): These are basic modules for teacher’s training, teaching and learning instructional facilities for our children to help them understand the subjects in better manner.

It also helps learners to prepare themselves for various competitive exams to get admissions into professional degree courses.

  • Curriculum-based courses that can meet the needs of life-long learners of Indian citizens in India and abroad.
  • Assist students (class 11th and 12th) prepare for competitive exams.
  • Traditional method has direct instruction and lectures, seatwork. Here, students learn through listening and observation. The teacher relies on textbooks, lectures, and individual written assignments etc. In modern teaching, practicality, discoveries, group activities are the main pillars. Focus is on Internet, library and outside experts.
  • In traditional approach, presentation and testing methods favor students who have prior exposure to the material or exposure in multiple contexts. In Modern approach, context learning integrates personal knowledge within the school environment.


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