Q1) What is Saheb looking for in the garbage dumps? Where is he and where has he come from?
Ans.- Saheb is looking for a rupee in the garbage dumps. He lives in Seemapuri & comes from Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Q2) What explanation does the author offer for the children not wearing footwear?
Ans.- The explanation is that children walk barefoot on roads as a part of tradition. It’s an excuse to explain their perpetual state of poverty.
Q3) Is Saheb happy working at the tea-stall? Explain.
Ans.- No, he is not happy to work at the tea-stall.
Q1) What makes the city of Firozabad famous?
Ans.- Firozabad is famous for glass bangles.
Q2) Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry?
Ans.- Following are the hazards of working in the glass factory-
- It badly affects their eyesight.
- Children exposed with very high temperature.
- Lack of air & light at the places of bangle making.
Q3) How is Mukesh’s attitude to his situation different from that of his family?
Ans- Mukesh attitude to his situation is different from that of his family. His family restricts themselves only to the bangle making. They can’t go beyond their family job whereas Mukesh tries to look out of the box. He wants to become a motor-mechanic.
Understanding of text
Q1) What could be some of the reasons for the migration of people from villages to cities?
Ans.- People migrate from villages to cities for various reasons. One of the most prominent reason is money, because in rural areas the unemployment rate is very high. People migrate from villages to cities in search of jobs. Education & health facilities in cities are good as compared to villages. Available of all types of facilities in cities lure the people.
Q2) Would you agree that promises made to poor children are rarely kept? Why do you think this happens in the incidents narrated in the text?
Ans.- It is often seen that the promises made to poor children are rarely kept. The basic reason is priority. Poor people are not in the priority list for anyone. If someone tries to help them then time & money becomes their biggest hurdles. Many affluent people exploits them that’s why they never want to see progress in these poor communities. Funds that are allocated for these poor children never used properly. People with least resources are unaware that also lead to their exploitation.
Q3) What force conspire to keep the workers in the bangle industry of Firozabad in poverty?
Ans.- When the author asked a group of young men to form an organization or a cooperative society & sell their products directly to the markets. The group of young men tells her about the conspiracy of the middleman & the police who exploits them a lot; if they try to organized, if they try to be organized they are hauled up by the police, beaten 7 dragged to jail. Thus, the Sahukars, the middleman, the policemen, the keepers of law, the bureaucrats & politicians all together conspire against these workers.
Talking about the text
Q1) How, in your opinion, can Mukesh realise his dream?
Ans.- Mukesh is very different from his family members. None of his family member want to change their profession of bangle making. He can fulfil his dream of becoming a motor-mechanic but for this he need to work a lot. He has to travel long distances to learn the skill. It may be possible that initially he has to face a lot of hardship & exploitation but if he continues then we will achieve.
Q2) Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry?
Ans.- Following are the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry-
- Exposure to extreme heat.
- Working in dingy cells which have no light & oxygen.
- Welding of glass damages the eyes.
- Dust from polishing the glass cause blindness.
- Weak eyesight before adulthood.
Q3) Why should child labour be eliminated and how?
Ans.- In any country, if a child is working then it is a matter of disgrace to all the countrymen. In India, many children are compelled to work because of their poor family conditions. In this story, we see Saheb, Mukesh & Savita; all these children work hard & sacrifice their childhood. Working in a hazardous environment like in chemical factories, the cracker factory & carpet industry are very harmful fields for the children to work but we had seen many children working in these factories. Child labor should be eliminated and they must get adequate educational facilities. Bureaucrats, Politicians, and all other stakeholders must work for the upliftment of the rural people. So that they can earn a good living for their entire family.
THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE
Although this text speaks of factual events and situations of misery, it transforms these situations with almost poetical prose into a literary experience. How does it do so? Here are some literary devices:
•Hyperbole is a way of speaking or writing that makes something sound better or more exciting than it really is. For example, Garbage to them is gold.
•A Metaphor, as you may know, compares two things or ideas that are not very similar. A metaphor describes a thing in terms of a single quality or feature of some other thing; we can say that a metaphor “transfers” quality of one thing to another. For example, The road was a ribbon of light.
•Simile is a word or phrase that compares one thing with another using the words “like” or “as”. For example: As white as snow.
Carefully read the following phrases and sentences taken from the text. Can you identify the literary device in each example?
1. Saheb-e-Alam which means the lord of the universe is directly in contrast to what Saheb is in reality.
2. Drowned in an air of desolation
3.Seemapuri, a place on the periphery of Delhi yet miles away from it, metaphorically.
4. For the children it is wrapped in wonder; for the elders, it is a means of survival.
5. As her hands move mechanically like the tongs of a machine, I wonder if she knows the sanctity of the bangles she helps make.
6. She still has bangles on her wrist, but not light in her eyes.
7. Few airplanes fly over Firozabad.
8. Web of poverty.
9. Scrounging for gold.
10. And survival in Seemapuri means rag-picking. Through the years, it has acquired the proportions of fine art.
11. The steel canister seems heavier than the plastic bag he would carry so lightly over his shoulders.
1.Hyperbole 2.Metaphor 3.Contrast 4.Contrast
5.Simile 6.Contrast 7.Hyperbole 8.Metaphor
9.Metaphor 10.Hyperbole 11.Contrast
Things to do
The beauty of the glass bangles of Firozabad contrasts with the misery of people who produce them. This paradox is also found in some other situations, for example, those who work in gold and diamond mines, or carpet weaving factories, and the products of their labor, the lives of construction workers, and the buildings they build.
Write a paragraph of about 200 to 250 words on any one of them.
Ans.- It’s a paradox that the construction workers who build marvelous buildings for others are compelled to live in a small hut. They create dream homes for affluent families but their dreams remain dream throughout their life. They are the creator without any credit. Their hardship must be respected but it’s a paradox in their life. The common people must take inspiration from the sacrifice of the construction workers. They construct factories in which goods are produced & we consumed, they construct schools from which we all get knowledge. They create a country from their sweat so that we can get a happy & peaceful life. It is our responsibility to maintain their dignity in society. If they construct any schools their children must be given admission without any heavy admission fee. Whenever they construct any multiplex, the government or the manager must assure that they get sufficient wages for their work. Exploitation in any form to the construction workers shouldn’t be tolerated. Government, Policymakers & all other concerned stakeholders promote wellbeing in the lives of such construction workers.