The Living World

1. Why are living organisms classified ?

Ans- There is large variety of living organisms ( plants ,animals and microorganisms) found on the earth . They are different from each other on the basis of shape ,habit,habitat ,mode of nutrition etc. The number of species that are known and describe range between 1.7-1.8 million but a large number still remains unknown . Classification is the process by which anything is grouped into convenient categories based on some easy observable character.

  1. For easy identification.
  2. To study organisms of the places.
  3. To bring out similarities and dissimilarities between different organisms .

2. Why are the classification system changing every now and then ?

Ans – Scientific studies has been ever progressing due to addition of some new tools and techniques. New tools and technique changing and evolving every now and with the time.       The branch of knowing dealing with principles for identification ,nomenclature ,and classification of organisms referred to as  taxonomy . These studies of various species of plants and animals in many fields such forestry, agricultural and knowing our bioresearches and their diversity .

External and internal structure than become an important tool for classification. After phylogenetic classification came for classification of organisms. Then cellular structure , their development process, biochemical analysis  and ecological information of organisms were used for classification .

3.  what different criteria would you choose to classify people that you meat  often ?

Ans – In our day to day life, we categories people based on the following criteria:

  1. Nature
  2. Character
  3. Hobbies
  4. Native places
  5. Hobbies
  6. Level of education

4. What do we learn from identification of individuals and populations ?

Ans – By identification of individuals and populations we learn from following things

  1. Language
  2. Culture
  3. Food habbit
  4. Skin color
  5. Religion 

5. Given below is the scientific name of mango . identify the correctly written name .

Ans Mangifera indica

6. Define a taxon. Give some example of taxa at different hierarchical  levels .?

Ans – A taxon is a particles level of hierarchical in the system of classification of living beings. The following figures given taxa at different hierarchical level:

Phylum / Division
Table 1.1- Taxonomic categories showing hierarchical arrangement in ascending order

7.  Can you identify the correct sequences of taxonomical category ?

Ans Species →Genus → Family → Order → Class → Phylum → Kingdom

8. Try to collect all the currently accepted meanings for the word ‘species’. Discuss with your techer the meaning of species in case of higher plants and animals on one bond and bacteria on the other hand .

AnsTaxonomic studies consider a group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities as a species.

Higher animals and plant   :- Higher plants and animal are asexually reproducing organisms. Bacteria :- The criteria of free interbreeding and reproductive isolation cannot be applied in their case as they do not reproduce sexually.

9. Define and understand the following terms.

Ans –

  1. Phylum  – A taxonomic category higher than class and lowers in rank to kingdom is called phylum .The taxonomic category phylum is used for animals .
  2. Class – A taxonomic category higher than order and lower in rank to phylum or division is called class.
  3. Family – A taxonomic category higher than genus and lower in rank to order is called family . It posses less number of similarities of as compared to genus and species .
  4. Order – A taxonomic category higher than family and lowers in rank to class is called order. It posses some similarities correlated which are lesser in number as compared to a family.
  5. Genus – A group of related species having more character in common when compared to species of others genera is called genus .

10. How is a key helpful in the identification and classification of organisms?

Ans – Key is a type of taxonomical aid.  It has been generally used for identification for plants and animals based on similarities and dissimilarities. The keys are based on contrasting characters generally in a pair called couplets . It represents the choice made between two opposite options . Each statement in the key is called a lead . Separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic categories such as family , genus and species for identification purpose . keys are generally analytical in nature .

11. Illustrate the taxonomic hierarchy  with suitable example of a plants and an studies . ?

Ans – Taxonomical hierarchy is the classification of organisms in a definite sequences of taxonomic categories in the descending order, starting with kingdom and ending in in species.

Each category, referred to as a unit of classification,represent a rank called taxon.

Phylum / DivisionChordateAngiospermae
Species Homo Sapiens Mangifera Indica
Table 1.2- Organisms with their taxonomic categories

Categories: General


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