‘POLITICAL PARTIES-BOON OR BANE FOR THE SOCIETY’ –
Political parties have played a very special role in the development of democratic systems all over the world since the establishment of rule of law in the society departing from the anarchical system which has prevailed in societies all over the world, before the establishment of rule of law there existed the theory of an eye for an eye which will ultimately make the whole world blind, to overcome the challenges posed by this system of providing justice and settlement the need for the establishment of a rule-based order was felt in the society which ultimately leads to the formation of different political systems and political parties. The role and importance of political parties can be attributed mainly to the fact that during the election’s political parties creates consciousness among the voters
Political parties keep the nation alive politically, Political parties create the interests of the voters in politics and attract the attention of common people of the society towards the failures of the policymaking of the ruling party in provinces or at the central level. A large number of people all over the world also has a strong dislike towards the political parties because they are of the opinion that political parties mainly contribute towards the disintegration of the moral fiber of the society due to their polarizing and appeasement policies of politics. Leacock has defined a political party as more or less organized group of citizens who together acts as a single political unit. They share or profess to share the same opinion on public questions and by exercising their voting power towards a common end, seek to obtain control of the government.
*In a parliamentary system the majority party form’s the government. It makes the passage and implementation of legislation very smooth. The opposition parties also serve the country to a great extent because they criticize the ruling party for the excesses and also for the policy failures. There have been a number of instances all over the world politics when the government in power has completely reversed the legislation or undertaken the course correction of legislation due to the criticism by the members of the opposition parties. One of the famous quotes regarding the role of opposition is that opposition parties propose nothing and oppose everything but it is due to the constant criticism of the opposition that stops the ruling party from becoming an autocratic system. Due to this special role played by the opposition that the freedom of the people is protected and a dictatorial regime is not established.
In the absence of political parties, it will be very difficult to run the government because independent candidates will be elected in the legislature and they will have no organization and discipline. They will also not be bound to any policy or program. Therefore the head of the state shall have to face a great deal of difficulty in the formation of the cabinet and the cabinet will not have the support of the legislature without which it will be impossible to pass any legislation or to get it implemented for the benefit of the common people of the society.
One of the greatest political thinkers of our times LORD BRYCE has observed that Political parties are inevitable, no free country has ever existed without them. No one has been able to show how representative government could be made to function without them. They bring order out of the chaos of a multitude of voters. It can be summed up that if political parties cause some evils they avert and mitigate bigger problems like a dictatorship or a one-party system.
Where there exists or has existed one party system in the state, the opposition is altogether crushed and the dictatorship of the government is established. Without the effective existence of opposition political parties, the protection and survival of democracy in the state is not possible.
*In the states without any political party, absolute monarchy or dictatorship will be ultimately established because there will not be any voice of opposition and the sovereign will ultimately become above the land of the law and ultimately the sovereign will become a tyrant in his own rights and he will try to impose his own will on the common people of the state. We can see this best from the examples of North Korea, china where the sovereign is the ultimate authority and he has unfettered powers over the affairs of his own country in every sphere as a result of which we can see that these states have become a danger for the whole of humankind and the security threats these possess all over the world.
*It can be finally concluded that for the protection of democracy bi-party or multi-party system is inevitable. If there is no effective opposition party there will always be a possibility of the government becoming absolute and the world going back the same to the old anarchical ways.
POLITICAL THEORY BY R.C AGGARWAL,ISBN NUMBER-978-81-219-0664-7