Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1

Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1
Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1

What do we mean by “Research”?

Research can be one of the most interesting as well as fascinating features of any degree course as it offers you a measure of control and autonomy over what you learn and your gray matter. It provides you with an opportunity to confirm, clarify, pursue – or even discover – new aspects of a subject or topic that you are interested in. So, research actually is – a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic, methodical, and ethical; research can help one solve practical problems and increase knowledge.

What are the types of Research?

Since there are a number of research methods and each of them carries their own advantages and disadvantages, it is important for a researcher to select a form of research and specialize in that very method of research. Mentioned below are the few broad categories into which types of research have been divided.

  • Basic Research: (Pure Research or Fundamental or conceptual research)
  • Answer to how, when and what.
  •  Knowing or understanding a theory in detail
  • Expands the Knowledge of processes of business and management
  • Results in Universal Principles
  1. Applied Research
  2. This Research is used to solve a specific problem
  3. Applied research is more glorified form of research
  4. Improves the understanding of particular problem
  5. In this research, fundamentals that are found out in pure research are applied to produce some end products. In brief it is an application of theory to find out the practical solution of a problem.
  • Quantitative Research
  • Quantitative Research is the systematic Investigation of the observable event via statistical, mathematical or computational technique.
  • It is a research which can be represented or described according to some numerical system.
  •  Experimental and Descriptive Research are the major classification of this Research.
  • Its aim is to classify, count features, construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what has happened
  •  Data in this type of Research is in the form of numbers or statistics
  • Sample size is small
  •  It is used to develop hypothesis
  • Qualitative Research
  • This type of Research is found common in social sciences where researchers intend to study social and cultural phenomenon
  •  It is not involved in investigating and developing hypothesis
  •  Common perception of this research is emphasis on discovery rather than proof.
  •  Action research and Historic research are the major example.
  •  This research is the in depth understanding of social phenomenon within their natural setup
  • Methods of data collection includes observation, interview, etc
  •  Sample size is large
  • Comparative Research
  • This research deals with the comparison of similarities or difference under same or varying condition.
  • Exploratory Research
  • This research is conducted for a problem that has not been studied more clearly
  • It helps to determine best research design, data collection method.
  • Techniques of exploratory research is: review of available literature/data; discussion, etc
  • Conceptual and Empirical Research
  • Conceptual research is a methodology wherein research is conducted by analysing and observing already present information on a given topic.
  • It is related to abstract concepts or ideas.
  • Philosophers have long used conceptual research to develop new theories or interpret existing theories in a different light
  • Steps or Process Of  Research

This involves a systematic process that focuses on being objectives and gathering a magnitude of information for analysis, so that the researcher can conclude.

Step 1: FORMULATION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

  • Select problem
  •  Literature review
  •  Formulation of objectives
  •  Identifying research variables and measuring scales
  •  Formulating hypothesis

Step 2: PREPARING RESEARCH DESIGN

  • Problem structure
  • Objectives of the research study
  • Selection of the method of data collection
  • Source of information-sample design
  • Tools for data collection
  • Data analysis-qualitative and quantitative

Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1

 Step 3: DEVELOPING DATA (RESEARCH INSTRUMENT)

             Data is defined as the information recorded to represent facts.

  1. Primary and secondary data
  • Primary Data– Primary data is collected for the purpose of current research project. It is collected fresh by the researcher and is based on surveys, observations and experimentation.
  • Secondary Data– Secondary data is collected from external sources, like Television, radio, the Internet, magazines, books and newspapers. These data might have been collected for different purposes. It is an inexpensive and a quick method to obtain information
  • Objective and Subjective  data
  • Subjective data- can be it can be dependent upon the researcher or an individual’s opinion
  • Objective data– are independent of any Individual opinion.
  • Qualitative and Quantitative data
  • Qualitative data– is the description of things made without assigning numeric values. For example, facts generated from unstructured interview. It need the researcher’s interpretation
  • Quantitative data– entail measurements in which the numbers are used directly to represent properties of things. It is ready for statistical analysis.

Step 4: SELECTING SAMPLES

Sampling is required if the population under study is very large. A sample can be defined as a representative subset of the population. Validity of research results depends upon the sample drawn. There are logical, scientific or statistical techniques for formulating a sample. If the sample is lopsided then the results cannot be trusted or generalized.

 The main benefits of sampling are as follows:

1. Reduction in overall cost of research.

2. Less time-consuming and in certain cases, this is desirable as well.

3. In case, the population is consistent, this becomes even more desirable

STEP 5: WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL

A research proposal is a document usually having three to seven pages that informs others of a proposed piece of research. It is a document written by which a researcher gives a detailed explanation of the intended program. It gives the reader a summary of information discussed in the project. Research proposals are written for various reasons, like budget request for the research certification requirements for research, etc.

 Main Elements of Research Proposal are as follows

1. Need of specific research project

2. Benefits and beneficiaries

 3. Type of data to be collected and the means to collect the data.

 4. Types of analysis.

5. Help required from other organization, if any.

 6. Duration, facilities and requirements of funds.

7. Profile and credentials of the proposers

Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1

STEP 6: COLLECTING DATA

There are various alternatives available to collect relevant data. The researcher should select one method of collecting data taking into account the nature of investigation, scope and objective of inquiry, financial cost, availability of time and the desired accuracy. In case of a survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways.

In case of a survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways.

  • By observation
  • Personal interviews
  • Telephonic interviews
  • Mailed questionnaires
  • Schedules

STEP 7: PROCESSING AND ANALYSING DATA

  1. Editing: The process of cleaning data is called editing. The purpose of editing is to identify and minimize errors, miscalculations, misclassification or any gap in information provided by the respondent.
  2. Coding: If depends upon how a variable has been measured in your research instrument. For coding, the first step is to ensure the nature of data
Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1

STEP 8: WRITING A RESEARCH REPORT

Writing a report is the last and the most difficult step of the research process. The report informs the world what you have done, what you have discovered and what conclusions you have drawn from your findings. The report should be written in an academic style. The language should be formal and not journalistic.

The two most important and commonly used formatting styles are published by:

• MLA (Modern Language Association), commonly seen as “Works cited”

• APA (American Psychological Association), commonly seen as “Reference list.”

  • Research report format
  • Title Page
  • Table of contents
  • Appendices
  • List of tables
  • List of figures
  • Acknowledgements- In this section, the researcher may acknowledge people whoever has helped him in the research i.e. the institute, principal, faculty guides (both research guide and technical guide), research participants, friends, etc.
  • Introduction- This section introduces the research, setting out the main aims and objectives. It is actually a rationale for the research.
  • Theoretical Framework and Review of Literature- This section includes all the background research information that has been obtained from the literature review. You must indicate from where all the information was obtained. Thus, it is mandatory to keep a complete record of everything the researcher has read.
  • Research Design- This section includes all practical details followed for the research. After reading this, any interested party should be able to replicate the research study.
  • Data Analysis and Interpretation- If you have conducted a large quantitative survey, this section may contain tables, graphs, pie charts, and associated statistics.
  • Summary and Conclusion- In this section, you sum up your findings and draw conclusions from them, perhaps in relation to other research or literature.
  • Recommendations- If the research has been conducted for any client organization, this section could be treated as the most important part of the report.
  • Suggestions for Further Research- Research is a continuous process. This section shows how research could be continued. This could happen as some results are inconclusive or the research itself has thrown up many more research questions that need to be addressed.
  • List of References/Bibliography- The list of references contains only the details of those works cited in the text. It includes sources not cited in the main text matter but is relevant to the subject of study, specifically in case of larger dissertations or thesis.
  • Appendices- This is a section or table of subsidiary matter at the end of a book or document. Appendices do not count towards your total number of pages of records.

Research Aptitude for UGC NET Paper 1

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